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The Abu Simbel :
Rmesses II & Queen Nefertari Temples
The main temple was dedicated to Ramesses II and to the four universal gods Ptah, Re-Harakhte, Amun-Re, and to Ramesses II himself. Of the seven temples he built, Abu Simbel is considered to be the most impressive.
Hathor was the wife of the Sun God so in a symbolic way, the two Temples, that of Ramesses II and that of Nefertari, brings Ramesses II and Nefertari and Hathor and the Sun God together as one. The façade of the temple is a receding Pylon, just as the larger temple of Ramesses II. On either side of the entrance to the temple are a deified statue of Nefertari with statues of Ramesses II on either side of her. The statues of Nefertari are the same height as those of Ramesses, which is unusual. Like at Ramesses II’s temple, there are children depicted around their feet. There are cobras protecting the Temple door.
This temple is much simpler than the Temple of Re-Herakhte. It has only one hypostyle hall and the sanctuary. Within the hall are images of Ramesses in battle with Nefertari present. Other scenes depict Ramses being crowned by Horus and Seith and presenting Ma’at to Amun. On the back wall, Nefertari is before Hathor and Mut. Just behind the Hypostyle Hall is a small chamber with images of Hathor cow framed in reeds. Beyond that is the sanctuary with a divine cow emerging from the rear rock wall protecting Ramesses, below her. Above the cow, vultures guard the Queens cartouches. Other scenes show Nefertari offering incense to Mut and Hathor, and the King worshipping before his own image and that of Nefertari.
The facade of the main temple is 108 feet high and 125 feet wide with four colossal seated statues about 65 feet high wearing the double crown and having the cartouches of Ramesses II. They are taller than the colossi of Mammnon at Thebes and are carved out of solid rock. At the feet of the calossus, beginning on the left are Queen Nofretari, Prince Amenhirkhopshef, the Kings mother Muttuya, Princess Bent’anta, unnamed, but probably Esenofre, Princess Nebettawy, Queen Muttuya, Princess Nofretari, Princess Merytamun, Princess Beketmut, Prince Ri’amsese, and Queen Nofretari, who where all members of Ramesses II’s family. (Editor’s Note: We wonder if Ramesses II bribed his kids to make good grades.
Above the doorway in a niche stands the sun god, a falcon headed representation of Ramesses, holding a war-scepter which shows the head and neck of an animal which is read as user, in his right and a figure of Ma’at in his left. This cleverly creates the Kings throne name of User-Ma’at-Re. At the top of the facade is a row of baboons which are thought to be greeting the morning sun and indeed the monument looks best at that time. The sides of the thrones next to the entrance are decorated with Nile gods symbolically uniting Egypt, while below are prisoners, representing conquered nations, to the left, African and to the right, Asian.
The entrance leads into a Grand Hall which is 57 feet high and 52 feet wide and was cut from the rock. It is supported with eight pillars with statues of Ramesses. The statues on the north side of the hall wear the double crown, while those on the south the white crown of upper Egypt. Just as other temples in Egypt, the floor and ceiling taper off to draw focus to the sanctuaries in the back of the temple. The reliefs on the north wall of the Grand Hall show scenes from the Battele of Kadesh ,Other walls depict the king slaughtering captives in front of the gods Amun-Re and Re-Harakhte, and storming a fortress with his three sons.
To either side of the Grand Hall are smaller rooms, two to the South and four to the North. Most suggest that these rooms were for storage (treasure rooms) but elsewhere it is suggested that they were used for festivals related to the Kings Jubilee.
Beyond the Grand Hall is the second hypostyle hall with its flowered pillars. Scenes in this hall show the King and his wife, Nefertari making offerings to Amun and Re-Harakhte (the Sun God), and beyond that is the three chapels, the central one containing the four deities worshipped in the temple (including Ramesses II). A Solstices occurs twice a year on or about February 20-22nd and October 20-22nd when the rays from the sun enter the front of the temple and bathe the statues of the Gods 200 feet inside the temple with light. Interestingly enough, all but Path, the source of Chthonian life.
On either side of the Façade are two small chapels. At the Southeast corner of the façade there are three stelae. One of these is called the Marriage Stela and documents the marriage of Ramses II to the daughter of the King of the Hittites. (Editors Note: The question is, what did she look like? Did Ramses consider this a heroic deed?) On the other side of the Façade is the Sun Chapel, an open court dedicated to the sun. Here, there are pillars with cavetto cornices. The one with steps held four praying baboons, the other a chapel with images of Khepri and Baboon-Thoth. The latter is now in the Antiquities Museum in Cairo.
– The Abu Simbel Sun Festival :
Twice a year – on the 22nd February and the 22nd October. When the temple of Ramses II was first built the Sun Festival was celebrated a day earlier, on the 21st of February – reportedly the anniversary of Ramses’ ascension to the throne, and on the 21st October, his believed birthday. The temple was built so that the inner sanctums were perfectly aligned with the sun’s rays on just these two dates of the year – at all other times that inner sanctuary sits in darkness.
In the 1960s the temples were relocated when the construction of the Aswan Dam threatened to submerge the ancient monument and others in the vicinity. In a bid to save the temples from irreparably water damage, this labour-intensive project was successfully carried out at a cost of millions of dollars. The temples now stand in a spot 200 metres back from the water line and since the move the Sun Festival has taken place a day later than what Ramses II originally intended.